Research on saline water conversion by freezing

by Thomas Kilgore Sherwood

Publisher: U.S. Dept. of the Interior; for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govt. Print. Off. in Washington

Written in English
Published: Pages: 73 Downloads: 903
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  • Saline water conversion -- Freezing process

Edition Notes

Statementby T. K. Sherwood and P. L. T. Brian, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for the Office of Saline Water, Applied Science Division.
SeriesResearch and development progress report, no. 179
ContributionsBrian, P. L. T. 1930- joint author., Massachusetts Institute of Technology., United States. Office of Saline Water. Division of Applied Science.
LC ClassificationsTD478 .U5 no. 179, TD480.2 .U5 no. 179
The Physical Object
Paginationvi, 73 p.
Number of Pages73
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL6008494M
LC Control Number66061468

area analysed the current status of saline water use in irrigation and examined water, soil and crop management techniques relating to the use of saline water for crop production. The conclusion of the Expert Panel was that there is good potential for the safe use of saline water for crop production. This report describes the activities of the University's saline water conversion research program. The following programs are described: (1) non-convective solar ponds in California; (2) Rankine cycles with two-component working fluid for power production from solar ponds or waste heat; (3) evaporation studies; (4) CO/sub 2/ regeneration of weak-acid ion exchangers; (5) selenium . For instance, ongoing research programs exist at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research Doha Research Plant (KISR, ), the Research and Devel- opment Center of the Saline Water Conversion Corporation in Saudi Arabia (Al-Sofi, ), and the Middle Eastern Desalination Research Center (MEDRC, ). Thanks for contributing an answer to Physics Stack Exchange! Please be sure to answer the question. Provide details and share your research! But avoid Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. Use MathJax to format equations.

Desalination & Water Purification Technologies2 Integrated Water Resource Management – A Holistic Approach 2. Desalination Technologies Desalination refers to the process by which pure water is recovered from saline water using different forms of energy. Saline water is classified as either brackish water or seawater depending on the salinityFile Size: 2MB. The institute has been engaged in the research on utili- -- 32 -- zation of saline water, as I mentioned before. Recently the institute is concentrating its effort in the demineralization of saline water. «Direct freezing process using butane as a secondary refrigerant» has been the main project of the institute, since [13] [14].Author: Seiichi Ishizaka. saline-water conversion is not the only answer to all hopes for adequate water supplies in the future. Research and development must continue on a broad scale in many other directions, includ-ing conservation in agricultural, mu-nicipal, and industrial uses of water, the reclamation and reuse of existing water sources, and the search for new. M. Al-Ghamdi,() Saline Water Conversion Corporation: Challenge, Achievement, and Future Prospective. Lecture notes, Matthess G (ed) () The Properties of Ground Water. New York: Wiley Interscience Publishing Company. Meadows P S and Campbell J I () Marine Science: An Introduction. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Mellor J W ()File Size: KB.

This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation. The results of a new study provide direct computational evidence that nucleation of ice in small droplets is strongly size-dependent, an important conclusion in understanding water's behavior at. NASA Images Solar System Collection Ames Research Center. Brooklyn Museum. Full text of "Saline water demineralization and nuclear energy in the California water plan".   Saltwater pools need to be regularly checked for signs of erosion and buildup. But more research is needed to determine if a saltwater pool is .

Research on saline water conversion by freezing by Thomas Kilgore Sherwood Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. Research on saline water conversion by freezing. [Thomas K Sherwood; P L T Brian; Massachusetts Institute of Technology.; United States. Office of Saline Water. Division of Applied Science.]. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Research on saline water conversion by freezing.

[Washington] U.S. Dept. of Interior; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Saline Water Conversion by Freezing HERBERT F.

WIEGANDT Chap DOI: /bach Publication Date (Print): January 1,   From Introduction: "The study of the conversion of saline water by direct freezing using a secondary refrigerant has been sponsored by the the Office of Saline Water at Cornell University since the beginning of This report first considers the energy relationships which can be the basis for much controversy regarding the freezing process."Author: H.

Weigandt. Report presenting a study of a plant to prod, gallons per day of fresh water from sea water. The process used is direct freezing brought about by the evaporation of a hydrocarbon refrigerant in contact with sea water, washing the ice free of saline liquor, and melting the ice to potable water by the condensation of butane by: 6.

The text also covers the aspects of the application of ion exchange to the conversion of saline water into fresh water and the evolution of the distillation process for seawater conversion. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners in disciplines that directly deal with securing a potable water source.

Desalination by freeze crystallization is a freezing-melting process in which water is crystallized to ice and separated from saline solution.

Freezing is one of the methods used for desalination. Although different methods, like reverse osmosis and distillation, are used commercially, freezing can be. With P. Brian and R. Fisher. Salt concentration at phase boundaries in desalination processes.

Office of Saline Water, Department of the Interior Rep. With P. Brian. Research on saline water conversion by freezing. Office of Saline Water, Department of the Interior Rep. Research and Scholarship. The freezing point of a solution is always less than the freezing point of the pure solvent due to disruption of intermolecular interactions.

The freezing point of saltwater is thus lower than the freezing point of pure water. This means that adding ice to winter roads can help water melt. Freezing temperature is an important parameter in studying the freezing mechanism of saline soil.

An equation for calculating the freezing temperature is proposed based on the phase transition theory in porous medium, including two main influencing factors, the water activity and pore size. In this equation, the effect of the water activity on the freezing Cited by: 9.

Desalination is a process that takes away mineral components from saline generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture.

Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or by-product of the desalination process is brine. Water is very essential for all living beings. It covers nearly 70% of earth’s surface.

Even though the major portion of earth is covered by water, there is severe shortage of drinking water in most of the countries across the world. Safe drinking water is vital for all forms of life though it does not provide any calories.

Desalination of sea water appears as a solution for this by: 1. Water molecules tend to form crystals in the process of freezing. In case of salt water, the process of crystallization is hampered by sodium (Na+) and chlorine (Cl-) ions present in it, and this, in turn, delays the process of freezing.

So, saline water remains in a liquid state even at 0°C, which is the freezing point of normal water, and. The Electrosorb Process for Desalting Water (research and development progress report #; Washington: U.S. Dept.

of the Interior, ), by Allan M. Johnson, A. Wayne Venolia, Robert G. Wilbourne, and John Newman (page images at HathiTrust) Filed under: Saline water conversion -- Confederate States of America. This book consists of five chapters. Chapter 7 focuses on the conversion of saline water to fresh water by freezing, while Chapter 8 describes “hyperfiltration, which is the separation of salts and other low- molecular-weight solutes from solvent by passage under pressure through a selective membrane.

Saline Water Conversion Report for [Office of Saline Water] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying cturer: United States Department of the Interior. Thermal conductivity of ice- and hydrate-bearing fine-grained porous sediments (soils) has multiple controls: mineralogy, particle size, and physical properties of soil matrix; type, saturation, thermal state, and salinity of pore fluids; and pressure and temperature.

Experiments show that sediments generally increase in thermal conductivity upon freezing. The increase is primarily Cited by: 1. Humans cannot drink saline water, but, saline water can be made into freshwater, for which there are many uses.

The process is called "desalination", and it is being used more and more around the world to provide people with needed freshwater. A floating solar still is used to desalinate small amounts of seawater, using evaporation and.

A brief survey is given of proposed methods for the production of potable water from saline waters. It is concluded that vapor recompression distillation, electrodialysis, and in some cases solar distillation, represent the most suitable processes for domestic units, capable of outputs of about 50 to gal/day.

A method and apparatus for melting ice incidental to a freezing process for water desalination. Mechanical energy otherwise required to pump super heat in the compressed refrigerant vapor is conserved and rate of ice melting in the melter-washer reduced by providing an auxiliary blower for recycling uncondensed refrigerant vapor around the melter and.

Freezing is one of the methods used for desalination. Although different methods, like reverse osmosis and distillation, are used commercially, freezing can be used for remote areas, cold regions and for small and remote societies.

We have investigated the method of crystallization by external cooling via non-direct contact for desalination of seawater. The steps Cited by: Highly saline water - F ppm to 35, ppm Ocean water has a salinity that is approximat ppm.

That's the same as saying ocean water is about % salt. Sometimes, salinity is measured in different units. Another common unit is the psu (practical salinity units).

Ocean water has a salinity of approximately 35 psu. Seawater desalination technologies Research Office Legislative Council Secretariat FS07/ 1.

Introduction Desalination is a process of removing dissolved salts from seawater to produce fresh water for consumption. There are two major types of desalination technologies around the world, namely membrane desalination and thermal desalination. The desalination of saline and brackish water in countries in climatically dry regions is gaining significance, as increasingly large quantities of desalinated water are required for drinking, irrigation and other purposes.

Moreover, independent of geographical conditions, the purification of industrial waste water is of growing importance. In this book a group of process, design, and.

Water Resources Research. Vol Issue 1 be used for the calculation of shifts in the osmotic potential of the water in drying porous bodies by using a simple conversion factor. Graphs relating the remaining water content to the freezing point shift for various initial soluble salt contents are given.

Good agreement is found between the Cited by: Saline Water Conversion, Number 27 Advances in Chemistry Series [n/a] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Saline Water Conversion, Number 27 Advances in Chemistry SeriesAuthor: n/a. Adding a substance to water makes the water denser and thus lowers the freezing point, so the cup with the most salt will freeze the slowest.

A heavier liquid has different freezing and boiling points than a liquid without anything added to it. The experiment should prove that the more salt in the cup, the slower the water freezes but what if. This volume covers such areas in the field of soil salinity and water quality as: origin and distribution of salt-affected soils; management of alkali soils; quality criteria of irrigation water; wastewaters as a source of irrigation; and grasses and trees in.

Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly sodium chloride).The salt concentration is usually expressed in parts per thousand (permille, ‰) or parts per million (ppm).

The United States Geological Survey classifies saline water in three salinity categories. Salt concentration in slightly saline water is around. This book consists of five chapters. Chapter 7 focuses on the conversion of saline water to fresh water by freezing, while Chapter 8 describes “hyperfiltration”, which is the separation of salts and other low- molecular-weight solutes from solvent by passage under pressure through a selective Edition: 1.Water purification, process by which undesired chemical compounds, organic and inorganic materials, and biological contaminants are removed from process also includes distillation (the conversion of a liquid into vapour to condense it back to liquid form) and deionization (ion removal through the extraction of dissolved salts).

One major purpose of .Indirect or secondary refrigerant freezing (SRF) Diffusion. Under diffusion, those processes are considered whereby the fresh product water is separated from the saline feed water by means of a hydrophobic or semipermeable membrane.

The feed water, as a result of the extraction of freshwater, is gradually converted into brine.